The foundation of training should be based on positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement is the process of giving a dog (or person!) a reward to encourage the behavior you want, like getting a pay check for going to work. The idea is not to bribe the behavior but to train it using something your dog values.  Avoid using punishment such as leash corrections or yelling. Punishment can cause a dog to become confused and unsure about what is being asked of him.  It is important to remember that we can’t expect dogs to know what they don’t know – just like you wouldn’t expect a 2-year-old child to know how to tie his shoes. Patience will go a long way in helping your new puppy learn how to behave.
Positive-reinforcement is the methodology suggested by humane organizations, veterinary associations and dog trainers alike. This type of training focuses on rewarding desired behaviors using something that the dog values (typically treats), removing the reward for undesired behaviors and not using physical punishment or fear to bring about behavioral change.
Though we are aiming for natural solutions you can do yourself or pick up at the pet store, you'll still want to consult your vet before trying supplements, even natural ones. That said, Rescue Remedy is a popular solution for those leaning toward herbal supplements to treat anxiety. Rescue Remedy is a mix of natural herb and flower extracts that can calm the nerves. It comes in everything from drops to sprays to gums for humans, and they do indeed have a pet-specific blend. You can add a couple drops to your dog's water dish, or add a drop to a treat. Another possible supplement is the Tranquility Blend formula from Animal Essentials.
Finally, socialization with children and other animals is a key reason people begin puppy obedience training. In order to invite people into your home and bring your dog out in public, you want to feel confident that he can communicate in a safe, social manner with his furry peers and people of all ages. Children often make pets very skittish, so showing them how to behave around children — even if none live in your home — is an integral part of training. Your dog may still come across children on a walk, and you want to know that their often erratic or in-your-face behavior won't upset or scare your pet.
Some people prefer to leave the training to the experts. You can find a professional dog trainer who offers private training sessions. Some trainers even offer online sessions. Many dog owners prefer to join a local dog obedience class so they will be under the supervision of a dog training instructor without the higher cost of private sessions. Plus, classes challenge your dog to learn around the distractions of other dogs.
Both conventional and holistic veterinarians treat social dog anxiety with desensitization techniques. The holistic approach differs in that it recommended a decrease in the frequency of vaccinations or at least a delay of giving any vaccines until the patient is behaving more normally. The rabies vaccination may especially exacerbate an aggressive personality.
When your dog knows the release cue and how to sit on cue, put him in a sit, turn and face him, and give him a treat. Pause, and give him another treat for staying in a sit, then release him. Gradually increase the time you wait between treats (it can help to sing the ABC’s in your head and work your way up the alphabet).  If your dog gets up before the release cue, that’s ok! It just means he isn’t ready to sit for that long so you can make it easier by going back to a shorter time.
In order to be certified as a therapy dog or emotional support dog, animals need to receive an evaluation/written designation from a licensed health professional: social worker, physician, psychiatrist typically. As for service dogs, which are allowed to accompany their owners into most businesses and pet-restricted areas, they can receive training, certifications, and registrations from several organizations such as TDI and United States Service Dog Registry. These certifications are not required by the Americans with Disabilities Act, but may streamline the process of getting a dog access to typically off-limits areas. Service dogs and therapy dogs are not the same thing. The same dog might fall into both categories, but therapy and emotional support animals are not recognized under the ADA.
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There is a normal, natural fear period that begins around 14 to 16 weeks. During this period, a puppy may become wary and suspicious of new people, species or experiences. This is a normal adaptive process. Watch your puppy closely for signs of fear (cowering, urinating, and refusal of food treats). Avoid pushing or overwhelming your puppy during this developmental stage.
Dogs competing in dog sports, such as flyball, agility or Schutzhund, must be trusted in an open field, off leash and surrounded by other people, dogs, hot dogs, and flying discs. This requires more focused attention on the owner and a better recall than that found in most household companion dogs, and more advanced training than that required for formal obedience.
At this point, you can start to incorporate very short absences into your training. Start with absences that last only last one to two seconds, and then slowly increase the time you’re out of your dog’s sight. When you’ve trained up to separations of five to ten seconds long, build in counterconditioning by giving your dog a stuffed food toy just before you step out the door. The food-stuffed toy also works as a safety cue that tells the dog that this is a “safe” separation.
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Punishment or aversive techniques will do little to stop these anxious dog behaviors in the long-run, because punishment does not address the source of the problem, which is the dog’s anxiety. In fact, suppression of these displacement behaviors, through pain and dominance methods, will make the problem worse, because pain increases stress and uncertainty.

Once your dog can stay, you can gradually increase the distance. This is also true for the “sit.” The more solidly he learns it, the longer he can remain sitting. The key is to not expect too much, too soon. Training goals are achieved in increments, so you may need to slow down and focus on one thing at a time. To make sure the training “sticks,” sessions should be short and successful.
Head halters are an alternative to collars that works similarly to a horse halter. The halter fits over the dog's snout and behind its head (leading it to sometimes be mistaken for a muzzle). Halters reduce the dog's ability to successfully pull on the leash, but do not eliminate it. If the halter is used with a sharp jerk on the leash, neck injury to the dog may result, but used correctly head halters have not been shown to cause harm.
Use real rewards Be sure to reward your dog with things she truly finds rewarding. Some dogs will happily work for dry kibble when training in your living room but ignore it if you’re training in the park. Because the park’s a more distracting environment, paying attention there is a harder job for your dog. Pay her accordingly by using a reward worth working for, like small pieces of chicken or cheese, or a chance to run off-leash at the dog park with her buddies. Also keep in mind that what your dog considers rewarding at any given time may change. If she’s just eaten a big meal, a scratch behind the ears or a game of tug might be most rewarding. If she hasn’t eaten in a while, she’ll probably work enthusiastically for tasty treats.
In some cases, dogs experiencing anxiety may become more aggressive overall. If your pet doesn’t typically growl, he may point and growl at whatever is causing him to be anxious. The longer you have your pet, the more it’ll be obvious as to what causes him distress. With any luck, you can avoid these situations as much as possible. But when you can’t, the good news is there are remedies available.

In order to be certified as a therapy dog or emotional support dog, animals need to receive an evaluation/written designation from a licensed health professional: social worker, physician, psychiatrist typically. As for service dogs, which are allowed to accompany their owners into most businesses and pet-restricted areas, they can receive training, certifications, and registrations from several organizations such as TDI and United States Service Dog Registry. These certifications are not required by the Americans with Disabilities Act, but may streamline the process of getting a dog access to typically off-limits areas. Service dogs and therapy dogs are not the same thing. The same dog might fall into both categories, but therapy and emotional support animals are not recognized under the ADA.
Does your dog have anxiety? As any pet owner knows, dogs have personalities and behaviors for different situations. When they’re in their comfort zone, they may be relaxed and mild-mannered, but when agitated, they may become defensive, rowdy, or anxious. If you know the types of situations that cause anxiety in your dog, there are a few solutions you can turn to ease his discomfort.
Hello, First, make sure that Zadok is receiving enough mental and physical exercise. The mental exercise is even more important for the hyperactivity than the physical exercise. Because he is a German Shepherd, which is a breed that was bred to work and have stamina, he needs to be challenged mentally. Spend thirty-minutes a day teaching him something new, working on things that he already knows but making them more challenging, practicing tricks, or doing exercises that take focus. If he is still physically able, then you can also set up some obstacles outside, like an agility course, practice commands during walks, and give him puzzle toys to focus on. Practicing obedience will also improve your communication with him, his focus, and his respect and trust toward you. Second, work on "Jazz Up Settle Down". This means, practice getting him excited by playing with him, then stop the game suddenly by freezing and give him a command, like "Sit". The fun will not resume until he obeys. When he obeys, give him a treat and praise him, then tell him "Okay" and go back to playing with him. At first, it will take him a bit to settle down and be able to obey. Keep things serious and boring until he calms down enough to obey. As you practice, just like any skill, he will get better at it, until he can obey right away during this game. This will help with his impulse control, his obedience during times of excitement, and him being able to switch focus onto something else while excited, like a toy instead of rough housing. Best of luck training, Caitlin Crittenden
We really feel bad for her, because she isn’t a bad dog, her anxiety just takes over and we know this is not healthy for her. We don’t want to not take her out places either, because we also have another younger dog ( a pitbull mix) who acts very normal when out, and we would like to do things with them together. We would give endless amounts of desensitizing training as we are very eager to resolve this, but we are confused as to where to begin.

Marian Breland Bailey played a major role in developing empirically validated and humane animal training methods and in promoting their widespread implementation.[12] Marian was a graduate student under B.F. Skinner. Her first husband Keller Breland also came to study with Skinner and they collaborated with him, training pigeons to guide bombs. The Brelands saw the commercial possibilities of operant training, founding Animal Behavior Enterprises (ABE). In 1955, they opened the "I.Q. Zoo" as both a training facility and a showcase of trained animals. They were among the first to use trained animals in television commercials, and the first to train dolphins and whales as entertainment, as well as for the navy.[12] Keller died in 1965, and in 1976 Marian married Bob Bailey, who had been director of marine mammal training for the navy. They pioneered the use of the clicker as a conditioned reinforcer for training animals at a distance.[11] ABE went on to train thousands of animals of more than 140 species.[12] Their work had significant public exposure through press coverage of ABE-trained animals, bringing the principles of behavior analysis and operant conditioning to a wide audience.[13]
Your dog is already a valuable member of your family, but when you train him to protect your children, he becomes literally indispensable. He will work hard and do his best to protect the rest of his pack (aka your family, especially the kids, who he sees as cubs in the pack). Training your dog to guard your children can take a few weeks of hard work or longer. To a certain degree, it depends on the breed as some like German shepherds, Doberman pinschers, and Rottweilers are more suited to being guard dogs.
Of course, neither extreme is really true. All animals have some level of genetic constraints (that's why you don't see bloodhounds herding sheep or cats that help the blind navigate the street). You can nudge your animal in one direction or the other, but you're likely to hit genetic limits eventually in their behavior. Animal behavior professionals will help you set realistic expectations regarding what can be changed. 
As the puppy grows into a dog, he also experiences less interaction with his owners. Puppies require a lot of time and training. Housebreaking, walking on a leash and basic commands take time to learn. Gradually, however, as a dog grows older, his owners may spend less time working on exercises like this and simply expect the dog to behave. The dog still craves companionship and may act out to get it.
Fantastic article, thank you very much. I already follow a great deal of your advice, except I haven’t trained my hound to go potty on command. I never used treats for rewards on walks simply because he never responds to treats when there’s more interesting things to look at. Instead, like you, I use praise and he’s very intune with me on walks. Treats are for inside; I play games with him, alongside our cat, using treats! Anyway, I digress. I just want to thank you for writing a wonderful article and sharing such details that will help people. Well done and best wishes.
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